Thursday, July 13, 2017

Fiqh of Ramadaan – 14/30 Obligatory Etiquettes of Fasting

Fiqh of Ramadaan – 14/30
Obligatory Etiquettes of Fasting

Obligatory: refers to a requirement the doer of which will be rewarded, and the one who abandons it will become deserving of the punishment (from Allaah).
And Fasting has some obligatory etiquettes which a fasting person must uphold, whether it is from the verbal acts of worship or practical. Hence, it is obligatory on a fasting person to adhere to all of the obligations while fasting and otherwise, and during a journey and at home. It is not permissible for him to abandon an obligation obligated by Allaah. And the greatest of all obligations and the most important of them after the two testimonies of faith, is the obligatory prayer.

Although this is something that’s obligatory during fasting as well as at other times, some of the people still show leniency with regard to prayers while they are fasting and think that this will not have any effect on their religion or their fast. Some of the people intentionally sleep through the prayers and do not pray them even while they are awake showing negligence in it. And some of them stay awake for a long period of time especially during the nights of the month of Ramadaan and when there is not left but a little time for the Fajr prayer, they go to sleep. And sometimes they do not wake up until after the sun has set and it is the time of Iftaar. Then they get occupied with iftaar such that they abandon the Maghrib and ‘Ishaa prayers as well.

And some of the people who fast do pray but they do not pray with the congregation of Muslims. Hence, as for the one who abandons the prayer itself and is negligence with its regard, then all his other acts are worthless and rejected, because by deliberately abandoning the prayer, he has committed an act of kufr (disbelief), and neither his fast nor any of his other acts are accepted, due to the saying of Allaah:

{وَلَوْ أَشْرَكُواْ لَحَبِطَ عَنْهُم مَّا كَانُواْ يَعْمَلُون}
{And if they had associated others with Allah, then worthless for them would be whatever they were doing} ([1])

And His (swt) saying:

{لَئِنْ أَشْرَكْتَ لَيَحْبَطَنَّ عَمَلُكَ}
{If you join others in worship with Allah, (then) surely (all) your deeds will be in vain} ([2])

And the one who abandons the prayer is similar to a Mushrik (the one who associates others with Allaah), as will be mentioned in the coming evidences below.

And the saying of Allaah:

{وَقَدِمْنَا إِلَى مَا عَمِلُوا مِنْ عَمَلٍ فَجَعَلْنَاهُ هَبَاء مَّنثُورًا}
{And We shall turn to whatever deeds they (disbelievers, polytheists, etc.) did, and We shall make such deeds as scattered floating particles of dust.} ([3])

As for the one who abandons the congregational prayer, then he is committing a major sin, because he abandoned an obligation obligated by Allaah upon him.

Below we will briefly discuss the ruling of the one who abandons prayer and the one who abandons the prayer in Jamaa’ah (congregation) based on evidences from the Qur’aan, the Sunnah and the sayings of Sahaabah (radiallah anhum):

First: Ruling of the one who abandons the prayer

Abandoning the obligatory prayer is kufr (disbelief) and whoever abandons it while denying its obligation has committed a major kufr with the unanimous agreement of all the People of Knowledge, even if then he were to start praying ([4]). As for the one who abandons praying at all while believing in its obligation and not being arrogant and not denying its obligation, then too, he has committed kufr, but the Scholars have differed whether it is the major type of kufr that takes one out of the fold of Islaam or a minor kufr. From what seems to be the most accurate of the opinions of the people of knowledge is that it is a major kufr which takes one out of the fold of Islaam, based on numerous evidences, some of which are as follows:

1-   Allaah (swt) said:

{يَوْمَ يُكْشَفُ عَن سَاقٍ وَيُدْعَوْنَ إِلَى السُّجُودِ فَلا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ * خَاشِعَةً أَبْصَارُهُمْ تَرْهَقُهُمْ ذِلَّةٌ وَقَدْ كَانُوا يُدْعَوْنَ إِلَى السُّجُودِ وَهُمْ سَالِمُونَ}
{The Day the shin will be uncovered and they are invited to prostration but the disbelievers will not be able, their eyes humbled, humiliation will cover them. And they used to be invited to prostration while they were sound.} ([5])

This verse indicates that the one who abandons prayer will be with the kuffaar (disbelievers) and munaafiqeen (hypocrites) who will not be able to prostrate when the Muslims prostrate, and if they were among the Muslims, they would have been allowed to prostrate like the Muslims are allowed.

2-   Allaah (swt) said:

{كُلُّ نَفْسٍ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ رَهِينَةٌ * إِلا أَصْحَابَ الْيَمِينِ * فِي جَنَّاتٍ يَتَسَاءَلُونَ * عَنِ الْمُجْرِمِينَ * مَا سَلَكَكُمْ فِي سَقَرَ* قَالُوا لَمْ نَكُ مِنَ الْمُصَلِّينَ * وَلَمْ نَكُ نُطْعِمُ الْمِسْكِينَ * وَكُنَّا نَخُوضُ مَعَ الْخَائِضِينَ * وَكُنَّا نُكَذِّبُ بِيَوْمِ الدِّينِ}
{Every soul, for what it has earned, will be retained, * Except the companions of the right, * [Who will be] in gardens, questioning each other, * About the criminals, * [And asking them], "What put you into Saqar?", * They will say, "We were not of those who prayed, * Nor did we used to feed the poor. * And we used to enter into vain discourse with those who engaged [in it], * And we used to deny the Day of Recompense.} ([6])

3-   Allaah (swt) said:

{فَإِن تَابُواْ وَأَقَامُواْ الصَّلاَةَ وَآتَوُاْ الزَّكَاةَ فَإِخْوَانُكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ وَنُفَصِّلُ الآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ}
{But if they repent, establish prayer, and give zakah, then they are your brothers in religion; and We detail the verses for a people who know.} ([7])

4-   Jaabir (radiallah anhu) narrates that the Messenger of Allaah () said:

((بين الرجل وبين الشرك والكفر ترك الصلاة))
((Between man and between Shirk and Kufr is the abandoning of prayer)) ([8])

5-   Abdullah bin Buraydah narrates from his father (radiallah anhu) that the Messenger of Allaah () said:

((العهد الذي بيننا وبينهم الصلاة، فمن تركها فقد كفر))
((The covenant that distinguishes between us and them is prayer, so whoever abandons it, has committed kufr.)) ([9])

6-   Abu ad-Darda (radiallah anhu) said, My Close Friend (Prophet ) advised me:

((لا تشرك بالله شيئا وإن قطعت وحرقت ولا تترك صلاة مكتوبة متعمدا فمن تركها متعمدا فقد برئت منه الذمة))
((Do not associate anything with Allaah, even if you are cut and burned. Do not neglect any prescribed prayer deliberately, for whoever neglects it deliberately no longer has the protection of Allaah)) ([10])

7-   Abdullah bin Amr bin al-‘Aas (radiallah anhu) that the Messenger of Allaah () made mention of Prayer one day, and he said:

((من حافظ عليها كانت له نورا، وبرهانا، ونجاة يوم القيامة، ومن لم يحافظ عليها لم يكن له نور، ولا برهان، ولا نجاة، وكان يوم القيامة مع قارون، وفرعون، وهامان، وأبي بن خلف))
((Whoever preserves the prayer, it will become a light, a proof and salvation for him on the Day of Judgement. And whoever does not preserve it, it will neither be a light, nor a proof, and nor salvation for him; and on the Day of Judgement, he will be (in fire) with Qaaroon, Fir’awn, Haamaan, and Ubay bin Khalf)) ([11])

8-   Buraydah al-Aslami (radiallah anhu) said, We were with the Messenger of Allaah () on  a campaign and he said:

((بكروا بالصلاة في اليوم الغيم فإنه من فاتته صلاة العصر حبط عمله))
((Hasten to perform prayer on a cloudy day, for whoever misses the 'Asr prayer, all his good deeds will be in vain)) ([12])

This indicates that the one who abandons an obligatory prayer deliberately will have all his good deeds destroyed. The ‘Asr prayer was specifically mentioned here because on a cloudy day it is possible to miss it because the sun is not visible, as it is the means of knowing the time of prayer.

9-   Abdullah bin Shaqeeq (radiallah anhu) said:

((كان أصحاب محمد - صلى الله عليه وسلم - لا يرون شيئًا من الأعمال تركه كفر غير الصلاة))
((The Companions of the Messenger of Allah () did not consider the abandonment of any action as disbelief except neglecting Salaat (prayer).)) ([13])

10-       More than one people of knowledge have narrated the unanimous agreement of all the Sahaabah on the kufr of the one who abandons the prayer ([14]).

11-       Imaam Ibn Taymiyyah has mentioned that the one who abandons prayer has committed kufr of the major type due to ten reasons ([15]) and he goes on to explain it at length.

12-       Imaam Ibn al-Qayyim rahimahullah has mentioned more than 22 proofs of the kufr of the one who abandons prayer as a major kufr ([16]).

13-   Imaam Ibn al-Qayyim rahimahullah said: ((The disbelief of the one who abandons prayer is proven from the Qur’aan, the Sunnah and the Ijmaa of Sahaabah)) ([17])

All of this indicates that the one who abandons the prayer altogether deliberately and negligibly has committed kufr (disbelief). And fasting or any other type of worship will not be accepted from him. We seek the refuge of Allaah from His wrath.

Second: Ruling of the congregational prayer (Salaat ul-Jamaa’ah)

Praying in congregation (Salaat ul-Jamaa’ah) is obligatory on every individual (fard ‘ayn) male who is obliged to pray, and is capable, whether he is a resident or a traveler for all of the five prayers as long as he is able to hear the call to adhaan ([18]), based on numerous evidences from the Qur’aan, the authentic Sunnah and the athaar, some of which are as follows:

1-   Allaah (swt) has commanded praying in congregation even during the state of fear, as He said:

{وَإِذَا كُنتَ فِيهِمْ فَأَقَمْتَ لَهُمُ الصَّلاَةَ فَلْتَقُمْ طَآئِفَةٌ مِّنْهُم مَّعَكَ وَلْيَأْخُذُواْ أَسْلِحَتَهُمْ فَإِذَا سَجَدُواْ فَلْيَكُونُواْ مِن وَرَآئِكُمْ وَلْتَأْتِ طَآئِفَةٌ أُخْرَى لَمْ يُصَلُّواْ فَلْيُصَلُّواْ مَعَكَ وَلْيَأْخُذُواْ حِذْرَهُمْ وَأَسْلِحَتَهُمْ}
{And when you are among them and lead them in prayer, let a group of them stand [in prayer] with you and let them carry their arms. And when they have prostrated, let them be [in position] behind you and have the other group come forward which has not [yet] prayed and let them pray with you, taking precaution and carrying their arms….} ([19])

Hence Allaah – the mighty and sublime – commanded praying in congregation even during the state of utmost fear in the middle of the battlefield. Then Allaah (swt) has repeated this command for the second group of people as well. So if praying in congregation was just a Sunnah, then it would have been more appropriate to leave it due to the excuse of fear. And if it was Fard Kifaayah (communal obligation) then Allaah would have dropped this command from the second group of people due to the act of the first group. This indicates that praying in congregation is obligatory on every single individual.

2-   The Prophet () has commanded praying in congregation.

Hence, Maalik bin al-Huwayrith (radiallah anhu) said, I came to the Prophet () with some men from my tribe and stayed with him for twenty nights. He was kind and merciful to us. When he realized our longing for our families, he said to us:

((ارجعوا فكونوا فيهم، وعلِّموهم، وصلُّوا، فإذا حضرت الصلاة فليؤذن لكم أحدكم، وليؤمكم أكبركم))
((Go back and stay with your families and teach them the religion, and offer the prayer and one of you should pronounce the Adhaan for the prayer when its time is due and the oldest one amongst you should lead the prayer)) ([20])

Hence, the Prophet () commanded them to pray in congregation and the command is an indication of the commanded being obligatory.

3-   The Prophet () thought of putting the houses of those who were not present during the congregational prayer to fire.

Abu Hurayrah (radiallah anhu) narrates that the Messenger of Allaah () found some people absenting from certain prayers so he said:

((لقد هممتُ أن آمر رجلاً يصلي بالناس، ثم أُخالِفَ إلى رجالٍ يتخلَّفون عنها فآمر بهم فيحرقوا عليهم بحزم الحطب بيوتهم، ولو عَلِمَ أحدهم أنه يجد عظماً سميناً لشهدها))
((I intend that I order (a) person to lead people in prayer, and then go to the people who do not join the (congregational prayer) and then order their houses to be burnt by the bundles of fuel. If one amongst them were to know that he would find a fat fleshy bone he would attend the night prayer.))

This is the wording of Muslim. The wording of al-Bukhaari is:

((والذي نفسي بيده لقد هممتُ أن آمر بحطب ليحطب، ثم آمر بالصلاة فيؤذّن لها، ثم آمر رجلاً فيؤمُّ الناس، ثم أخالف إلى رجالٍ فأحرِّق عليهم بيوتهم، والذي نفسي بيده لو يعلم أحدهم أنه يجد عَرْقاً سميناً، أو مرماتين حسنتين لشهد العشاء))
((By Him in Whose Hand my soul is I was about to order for collecting firewood (fuel) and then order Someone to pronounce the Adhaan for the prayer and then order someone to lead the prayer then I would go from behind and burn the houses of men who did not present themselves for the (compulsory congregational) prayer. By Him, in Whose Hands my soul is, if anyone of them had known that he would get a bone covered with good meat or two (small) pieces of meat present in between two ribs, he would have turned up for the `Ishaa' prayer.))

And in Saheeh Muslim, it says:

((إن أثقل صلاة على المنافقين صلاة العشاء، وصلاة الفجر، ولو يعلمون ما فيهما لأتوهما ولو حبوا، ولقد هممت أن آمر بالصلاة، فتقام، ثم آمر رجلا فيصلي بالناس، ثم أنطلق معي برجال معهم حزم من حطب إلى قوم لا يشهدون الصلاة، فأحرق عليهم بيوتهم بالنار))
((The most burdensome prayers for the hypocrites are the night prayer (‘Ishaa) and the Morning Prayer (Fajr). If they were to know the blessings they have in store, they would have come to them, even if they had to crawl, and I felt the urge to order the prayer to be commenced and command a person to lead people in prayer, and then go along with some people having a fagot of fuel with them to the people who have not attended the prayer (in congregation) and would burn their houses with fire)) ([21])

This hadeeth clearly indicates that congregational prayer is obligatory on every individual ([22]) ([23]).

4-   The Prophet () did not even give the concession of praying alone at home to a blind man.

Abu Hurayrah (radiallah anhu) said: A blind man came to the Prophet () and said:

يا رسول الله إنه ليس لي قائد يقودني إلى المسجد، فسأل رسول الله - صلى الله عليه وسلم - أن يرخص له؛ فيصلي في بيته، فرخص له، فلما ولَّى دعاه فقال: ((هل تسمع النداء بالصلاة؟)) فقال: نعم، قال: ((فأجب))
((Messenger of Allaah, I have no one to guide me to the mosque. He, therefore, asked. Allaah's Messenger () permission to offer prayer in his house. He () granted him permission. Then when the man turned away, he called him and said: “Do you hear the call to prayer?” He said: Yes. The Prophet said: “Then Respond to it”.)) ([24])

In another narration, Ibn Umm Makhtoom (radiallah anhu) narrates that he asked the Messenger of Allaah ():

يا رسول الله، إني رجل ضرير البصر، شاسع الدار، ولي قائد لا يلائمني، فهل لي رخصة أن أصلي في بيتي؟ قال: ((هل تسمع النداء؟)) قال: نعم، قال: ((لا أجد لك رخصة)). وفي لفظ أنه قال: يا رسول الله، إن المدينة كثيرة الهوام والسباع، فقال النبي - صلى الله عليه وسلم -: ((أتسمع حيَّ على الصلاة، حيَّ على الفلاح؟)) قال نعم، قال ((فحي هلا))، ولم يرخص له.
((O Messenger of Allaah, I am a blind man, my home is far, and I have a guide who does not follow me. Is it possible for me to be granted the permission to pray at home? He () said: “Do you hear the call?” He said: “Yes”. He said: “(Then) I do not find any concession for you” ([25])
In another wording, he said: “O Messenger of Allaah, There are many pests and wild animals in al-Madeenah” The Prophet () said: “Do you hear (the caller say), Hayya Ala as-Salaah, Hayya Ala al-Falaah?” He said: “Yes”. The Prophet () said: “Then you must come” and he did not give him the permission)) ([26])

These ahadeeth indicate that the Prophet () did not permit a Muslim to leave the congregational prayer as long as he is able to hear the call to prayer and it is not a cause of an actual harm to him of any kind. Who better among the people would be more deserving of being allowed to pray at home than a blind man? And yet the Prophet () commanded him to respond to the congregational prayer, then what about a sound person who has no such excuse ([27]).

5-   The Prophet () has warned that the one who hears the adhaan and does not come to it, there is no prayer for him.

Ibn Abbaas (radiallah anhu) narrates that the Prophet () said:

((من سمع النداء فلم يأته فلا صلاةَ له إلا من عُذرٍ))
((Whoever hears the call and does not come, there is no prayer for him, except for those who have an excuse)) ([28])

This proves that congregational prayer is fard ‘ayn (individual obligation). Shaykh al-Imaam Ibn Baaz (rahimahullah) said:

((معنى لا صلاة له: أي لا صلاة كاملة بل ناقصة... ))
((The meaning of: “There is no prayer for him” is that his prayer is not complete rather deficient)) ([29])

6-   Abandoning the congregational prayer is a sign of Hypocrites and a cause of misguidance.

Due to the saying of Abdullah bin Mas’ood (radiallah anhu):

((لقد رأيتُنا وما يتخلَّف عن الصلاة إلا منافق قد عُلِم نفاقه، أو مريض، إن كان المريض ليمشي بين الرجلين حتى يأتي الصلاة، وقال: إن النبي - صلى الله عليه وسلم - علمنا سنن الهُدى، وإنَّ من سنن الهُدى الصلاة في المسجد الذي يؤذن فيه))
((I have seen the time when no one stayed away from prayer except a hypocrite, whose hypocrisy was well known, or a sick man, but if a sick man could walk between two persons (i.e. with the help of two persons with one on each side) he would come to prayer. And (further) said: The Messenger of Allah () taught us the paths of right guidance, among which is to pray in the mosque in which the Adhaan is called))

And in another narration, he said:

((من سرَّه أن يلقى الله تعالى غداً مسلماً فليحافظ على هؤلاء الصلوات، حيثُ يُنادَى بهِنَّ؛ فإن الله شرع لنبيكم سنن الهدى، وإنهنَّ من سنن الهدى، ولو أنكم صليتم في بيوتكم كما يصلي هذا المتخلف في بيته لتركتم سنة نبيكم، ولو تركتم سنة نبيكم لضللتم، وما من رجل يتطهر فيحسن الطهور ثم يعمد إلى مسجدٍ من هذه المساجد إلا كتب الله له بكل خطوة يخطوها حسنة، ويرفعه بها درجة، ويحط عنه بها سيئة، ولقد رأيتُنا وما يتخلف عنها إلا منافق معلوم النفاق، ولقد كان الرجل يؤتى به يُهادى بين الرجلين حتى يقام في الصف))
((He who likes to meet Allah tomorrow as Muslim, he should persevere in observing these prayers, when a call is announced for them, for Allah has laid down for your Prophet the paths of right guidance, and these (prayers) are among the paths of right guidance. If you were to pray in your houses as this man why stays away (from the mosque) prays in his house, you would abandon the practice of your Prophet, and if you were to abandon the practice of your Prophet, you would go astray. No man purifies himself, doing it well, then makes for one of those mosques without Allah recording a blessing for him for every step he takes raising him a degree for it, and effacing a sin from him for it. I have seen the time when no one stayed away from it, except a hypocrite, who was well known for his hypocrisy, whereas (even) a (weak) man would be brought swaying (due to weakness) between two men till he was set up in a row.)) ([30])

This indicates that abandoning the congregational prayer is a sign of Hypocrites. And the signs of hypocrites are certainly not from abandoning a mustahabb act, nor from abandoning a makrooh act. And it is known that no one shows the signs of hypocrisy except either through the abandoning of an obligatory act or doing a prohibited act.

And it is narrated from Ibn Umar (radiallah anhu) that he said:

((كنا إذا فقدنا الرجل في صلاة العشاء وصلاة الفجر أسأنا به الظن))
((When we would find a person missing from the Ishaa and Fajr prayers, we would have bad thoughts about him)) ([31])

7-   The Shaytaan overpowers the people who do not pray in congregation

Due to the hadeeth of Abu ad-Dardaa (radiallah anhu) who said: I heard the Messenger of Allaah () saying:

((ما من ثلاثة في قرية، ولا بدوٍ لا تقام فيهم الصلاة إلا قد استحوذ عليهم الشيطان، فعليك بالجماعة، فإنما يأكل الذئب من الغنم القاصية)). قال زائدة: قال السائب: يعني بالجماعة: الصلاة في الجماعة
((There are no three people in a town or encampment among whom prayer is not established, but the Shaytaan takes control of them. Therefore, stick to the congregation, for the wolf eats only the sheep that strays off on its own)) Zaa’idah said: As-Saa’ib (the narrator) said: “By the word Jamaa’ah, he meant saying prayer in congregation” ([32])

The Prophet () warned about Shaytaan taking control over those who abandon the congregational prayer, and if it was only something recommended granting a person the choice to do it or abandon it, then why would the Shaytaan overpower the one who abandons it ([33]).

8-       Prohibition of exiting the Masjid after the Adhaan is called until one prays with the congregation.

Due to the hadeeth of Abu ash-Sha’tha who said:

كنا قعوداً في المسجد مع أبي هريرة - رضي الله عنه - فَأَذَّن المؤذن، فقام رجل من المسجد يمشي فأتبعه أبو هريرة بصره حتى خرج من المسجد، فقال أبو هريرة - رضي الله عنه -: ((أمَّا هذا فقد عصى أبا القاسم - صلى الله عليه وسلم -))
((We were sitting in the Masjid with Abu Hurayrah (radiallah anhu), when the Mu’adhdhin called the Adhaan. A man got up and walked out of the mosque, and Abu Hurayrah’s eyes followed him till he went out of the mosque. Upon this, Abu Hurayrah (radiallah anhu) said: “This man has disobeyed Abu al-Qaasim (Muhammad) ()”.)) ([34])

Hence Abu Hurayrah (radiallah anhu) considered him to be a disobedient of Allaah’s Messenger () because he left after the adhaan and abandoned the congregational prayer.

Imaam Nawawi rahimahullah said:

((فيه كراهة الخروج من المسجد بعد الأذان حتى يصلي المكتوبة إلا لعذر والله أعلم))
((In this is an indication of it being disliked to exit the masjid after the adhaan is called until one has prayed the obligatory prayer, except due to an excuse, and Allaah knows best)) ([35])

And this prohibition has also been narrated from the Prophet () explicitly, as Abu Hurayrah (radiallah anhu) narrates that the Messenger of Allaah () commanded us that:

((إذا كنتم في المسجد فنودي بالصلاة فلا يخرج أحدكم حتى يصلي))
((When you are in the mosque and the adhaan for prayer is called, do not leave until you have prayed)) ([36])

Allaamah al-Mubaarakpoori (rahimahullah) said: ((The hadeeth indicates that it is not permissible to go out of the mosque once the adhaan is called in it, except for a necessity such as the one who is junub or he breaks his wudoo, or one who has a bleeding nose, and the likes, and similarly one who is an Imaam in another mosque, and those in similar situations)) ([37])

9-       The Prophet () inquiring about people during the congregational prayer, indicates its obligation.

Ubay bin Ka’b (radiallah anhu) said:

صلى بنا رسول الله - صلى الله عليه وسلم - يوماً الصبح، فقال: ((أشاهد فلان؟)) قالوا: لا، قال: ((أشاهد فلان؟)) قالوا: لا، قال: ((إن هاتين الصلاتين أثقل الصلوات على المنافقين، ولو تعلمون ما فيهما،لأتيتموها ولو حبواً على الركب، وإن الصف الأول على مثل صف الملائكة، ولو علمتم ما فضيلته لابتدرتموه، وإن صلاة الرجل مع الرجل أزكى من صلاته وحده، وصلاته مع الرجلين أزكى من صلاته مع الرجل وما كثر فهو أحب إلى الله تعالى))
((The Messenger of Allah () led us in the dawn prayer one day. And he said: “Is so and so present?” They said: No. He (again) asked: “Is so and so present?” They replied: No. He then said: “These two prayers are the ones which are most burdensome to hypocrites. If you knew what they contain (i.e. blessings), you would come to them, even if you had to crawl on your knees. The first row is like that of the angels, and if you knew the nature of its excellence, you would race to join it.
A man's prayer said along with another is purer than his prayer said alone, and his prayer with two men is purer than his prayer with one, but if there are more, it is more pleasing to Allah, the Almighty, the Majestic”.)) ([38])

10-   The unanimous consensus of the Sahaabah (radiallah anhum) on the obligation of congregational prayer.

Imaam Ibn al-Qayyim said after mentioning the proofs and narrations of Sahaabah in this regard that: ((So these are the texts from the Sahaabah as you saw: authentic, famous and widespread, and there has not been narrated from a single Sahaabi the opposite of this, and each of these reports is an independent evidence in this issue, even if they were on their own, so what about when they all support and corroborate each other, and Allaah is the source of strength)) ([39])

And Imaam Tirmidhi rahimahullah said:

((وقد روي عن غير واحد من أصحاب النبي - صلى الله عليه وسلم - أنهم قالوا: من سمع النداء فلم يجب فلا صلاة له))
((And it is narrated from more than one Companions of the Prophet () that they said: The one who hears the calls and does not respond, there is no prayer for him)) ([40])

And among the people who fast are those who sleep through the time of prayer, and this is among the greatest of evils especially when it is done intentionally. In fact many of the Scholars have said: ((Verily one who delays the prayer from its time without an excuse, it will not be accepted from him even if he were to pray a hundred extra prayers)) ([41])

Due to the saying of the Prophet ():

((من عمل عملاً ليس عليه أمرنا فهو ردّ))
((Whoever does an act contrary to our way, will have it rejected)) ([42])

And prayer after its time has passed is not the way of the Prophet (), hence it will be rejected and will not be accepted ([43]).

[1] - [Al-An’aam (6:88)]
[2] - [Az-Zumar (39:65)]
[3] - [Al-Furqaan (25:23)]
[4] - [See, Tuhfat ul-Ikhwaan Bi-Ajwibah Muhimmah Tata’allaq Bi-Arkaan il-Islaam by Shaykh Abdul Azeez bin Abdullah bin Baaz (P. 73)]
[5] - [Al-Qalam (68:42-43)]
[6] - [Al-Muddaththir (74:38-46)]
[7] - [At-Tawbah (9:11)]
[8] - [Saheeh Muslim (1/86 H. 76)]
[9] - [Sunan Tirmidhi (2621), Sunan Nasaa’ee (1/231), Ibn Maajah (1079), classed Saheeh by al-Albaani]
[10] - [Sunan Ibn Maajah (4034), Classed Hasan by Al-Abaani, Al-Arnaa’oot & Zubayr Ali Zai]
[11] - [Musnad Ahmad (6576), Sunan ad-Daarimi (2763), Ibn Hibbaan (1467) and others. Classed Saheeh by Al-Iraaqi, ad-Dimyaati, Ahmad Shaakir, Ibn Baaz & Ibn Hibbaan; Classed Hasan by Al-Arnaa’oot, Classed Jayyid by Dhahabi, Al-Munziri, Ibn Abdil Haadi, Al-Busayri and Ibn Baaz. Al-Hakami and Al-Haythami said: “Its narrators are all Thiqah”]
[12] - [Musnad Ahmad (22957), Saheeh al-Bukhaari (553, 594), Sunan Ibn Maajah (694), Sunan Nasaa’ee (474) and others]
[13] - [Sunan Tirmidhi (2622), Saheeh]
[14] - [See: Al-Muhalla by Ibn Hazm (2/242, 243), Kitaab as-Salaat by Ibn al-Qayyim (P. 26), Ash-Sharh al-Mumti’ Ala Zaad al-Mustaqni’ by Ibn Uthaymeen (2/28)]
[15] - [Sharh al-Umdah by Ibn Taymiyyah (2/81-94)]
[16] - [See: Kitaab as-Salaat by Ibn al-Qayyim (P. 17-26). He has mentioned 10 proofs from the qur’aan and 12 proofs from the Sunnah and the Ijmaa of Sahaabah]
[17] - [Kitaab as-Salaat (P. 17)]
[18] - [The Scholars of Islaam have unanimously consented on the fact that establishing the five prayers in the Masaajid is among the greatest forms of worship and the means of closeness to Allaah, however, the Scholars have differed on whether praying in congregation in the masjid is obligatory on every individual (Fard ‘Ayn), on the community (Fard Kifaayah), or Sunnah Mu’akkadah (Emphasized Sunnah) in the following opinions:
First: It is Fard ‘Ayn (Individual Duty) – This is narrated from Imaam Ahmad and others from the Imaams of Salaf and Fuqaha of Hadeeth.
Second: It is Fard Kifaayah (Communal Duty) – This is the preferred opinion in the Madhab of Ash-Shaafi’ee, and it is also the opinion of some companions of Maalik, and it is one of the opinions in the Madhab of Ahmad.
Third: It is Sunnah Mu’akkadah (Confirmed/Insisted Sunnah) - This is a well-known opinion of the companions of Abu Haneefah, and several of the companions of Maalik and Shaafi’ee. And it is also mentioned as a narration from Ahmad.
Fourth: It is Fard ‘Ayn (Individual Duty) and it is also the condition for the validity of the prayer – This is the opinion of a group of earlier companions of Ahmad and a group of people among the Salaf. This is the opinion adopted by Ibn Hazm and others. And this is also one of the opinions mentioned from Shaykh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah in Al-Ikhtiyaaraat al-Fiqhiyyah of him (P. 103) and his student Ibn al-Qayyim as in Kitaab as-Salaah by him (P. 82-87).
The first of these four opinions is what we have preferred here and Allaah knows best.
See: Al-Majmoo’ Sharh al-Muhadhdhab lish-Sheeraazi by Imaam an-Nawawi (4/87), Al-Mughni by Ibn Qudaamah (3/5), Fataawa Shaykh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah (23/225-254), Al-Insaaf fi Ma’rifat ir-Raajih min al-Khilaaf by al-Mardaawi along with Al-Muqni wash-Sharh al-Kabeer (4/265), Nayl al-Awtaar by Shawkaani (P. 103), Kitaab as-Salaat by Ibn al-Qayyim (P. 69-86), Salaat ul-Jamaa’ah by Daktoor Saalih bin Ghaanim as-Sadlaan (P. 61-72), Ahmiyyatu Salaat il-Jamaa’ah by Ustaaz Fadl Ilaahi Zaheer (P. 41-110), Fataawa Imaam Ibn Baaz (12/7), Ash-Sharh al-Mumti’ by Allaamah Ibn Uthaymeen (4/204), Al-Ihkaam Sharh Usool al-Ahkaam by Ibn Qaasim (1/239)]
[19] - [An-Nisaa (4:102)]
[20] - [Agreed Upon: Al-Bukhaari (628), Muslim (674)]
[21] - [Agreed Upon: Al-Bukhaari (644), Muslim (651)]
[22] - [See, Sharh an-Nawawi Ala Saheeh Muslim (5/161)]
[23] - [Some people objected by saying that this warning of the Prophet () was only on the hypocrisy of the munaafiqeen and it is possible that they did not pray in their homes as well. Shaykh al-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah has answered this by saying: “This argument is wrong based on the following four reasons:
First: The Prophet () would not leave the Munaafiqeen except in their inner matters, and he would only criticize them for what was apparent of them in their abandoning of an obligatory act or doing a prohibited act. So if their abandoning of the congregational prayer was not an abandonment of an obligatory act, he would not have thought of burning their houses.
Second: The Prophet () has clearly associated this warning with their abandoning of congregational prayer, so it is necessary to associate this ruling with the cause that it is mentioned for.
Third: Later below, we will see the hadeeth of Ibn Umm Makhtoom who asked the Prophet for the permission to let him pray in his home and the Prophet () did not allow him, even though Ibn Umm Makhtoom radiallah anhu was a believer among the best of believers whom the Prophet () sent to Madeenah before the migration to teach Qur’aan to the people, and he used to give adhaan for the Prophet ().
Fourth: The absence of Munaafiqeen itself is also a proof of its obligation as it is proven in Saheeh Muslim and others from Ibn Mas’ood (radiallah anhu) that he said: “…I have seen the time when no one stayed away from prayer (in masjid) except a hypocrite, whose hypocrisy was well known, or a sick man, but if a sick man could walk between two persons (i.e. with the help of two persons with one on each side) he would come to prayer. And (further) said: The Messenger of Allah () taught us the paths of right guidance, among which is to pray in the mosque in which the Adhaan is called…”
So Ibn Mas’ood has informed that no one stayed away from it except a Munaafiq and this is a proof that it was something always known as a waajib among the believers and they did not know this except through the Prophet (). If it had been something mustahabb according to them like Qiyaam ul-Layl and voluntary prayers etc then there would have been some people who did it and some people who did not do it, as the Bedouin said to the Prophet () “By Allaah, I will not do more than this nor any less” upon this the Prophet () said: “He has succeeded if he is telling the truth.”
            And it is known that any action that no one avoids but a munaafiq is obligatory on every individual, like their going out for the battle of Tabook, for the Prophet () commanded every Muslim to take part in it and he did not allow any one of them to avoid it, except the one who gave a valid excuse, and so he gave them the permission to stay because of their excuse. Later when he returned, Allaah revealed to him the secrets of the Munaafiqeen and clarified that they stayed without an excuse….
See, Majmoo’ al-Fataawa (23/229)]
[24] - [Muslim (653)]
[25] - [Abu Dawood (552), Classed Hasan Saheeh by al-Albaani]
[26] - [Abu Dawood (553), Nasaa’ee (851), Saheeh]
[27] - [Also see:]
[28] - [Sunan Ibn Maajah (793), Ad-Daaraqutni (1/420 # 4), Ibn Hibbaan (2064), Al-Haakim (1/245), Abu Dawood (551), Classes Saheeh by Ibn al-Qayyim in Kitaab as-Salaah (P. 76), Al-Albaani in Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah (1/132) and Saheeh Abi Dawood (1/110), and Ibn Hajar said in al-Buloogh: “Its chain is Saheeh upon the conditions of Muslim”]
[29] - [As-Siyaam fil Islaam by al-Qahtaani (P. 216)]
[30] - [Saheeh Muslim (654)]
[31] - [Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah (3353), Al-Mu’jam al-Kabeer (13085), Musnad al-Bazzaar and others. Ibn Hajar said: “Its chain is Saheeh”]
[32] - [Abu Dawood (547), Nasaa’ee (847), Ahmad (6/446), Classed Hasan by al-Albaani]
[33] - [Kitaab as-Salaah by Ibn al-Qayyim (P. 80)]
[34] - [Saheeh Muslim (655)]
[35] - [Sharh an-Nawawi Ala Saheeh Muslim (5/163)]
[36] - [Ahmad (16/545), Classed Saheeh by al-Arnaa’oot (H. 10933)]
[37] - [Tuhfat ul-Ahwadhi bi-Sharh Jaami’ at-Tirmidhi by al-Mubaarakpoori (2/607)]
[38] - [Sunan Abu Dawood (554), this wording is his, & An-Nasaa’ee (843), Classed Hasan by al-Albaani]
[39] - [Kitaab as-Salaat by Ibn al-Qayyim (P. 81 - 82)]
[40] - [Sunan Tirmidhi (under H. 217)]
[41] - [See, As-Salaat wa-Hukm Taarikuha by Ibn al-Qayyim (P. 67-73) & Majaalis Shahr Ramadaan by Ibn Uthaymeen (P. 114)]
[42] - [Agreed Upon: Al-Bukhaari (2697), Muslim (1718)]
[43] - [Majaalis Shahr Ramadaan by Ibn Uthaymeen (P. 115)]

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