Saturday, June 1, 2019

Fiqh of Ramadaan – 16/30 Prohibitions of Siyaam

Fiqh of Ramadaan – 16/30 
Prohibitions of Siyaam

A Prohibited act is one whose doer is deserving of Allaah’s punishment while the one who avoids it is rewarded.
And the Saa’im (Fasting person) is prohibited from doing an act that is forbidden by Allaah and His Messenger (). And the Muharramaat (Prohibited things) for a fasting person are of two types:

First Type: All forms of invalidators of fast:

These are the ones we have discussed already. These are the prohibitions that invalidate the fast of a fasting person and they include: Eating, Drinking, Intercourse, Deliberate excretion of Semen, Deliberate Vomiting, Consuming anything that comes under the ruling of nourishment, and the intention of breaking the fast in case of the obligatory fast without any valid shara’ee excuse and others. Hence it is prohibited for a person fasting an obligatory fast – such as the fast of Ramadaan, the fast of expiation, and the fast of vows – to do any of these things, except if he has a valid excuse which would permit him to break his fast.

Second Type: Every other act prohibited in Ramadaan and in other than Ramadaan:

It is obligatory for a fasting person to avoid everything that is prohibited by Allaah whether it is physical or verbal, no matter it is during the fast or not. Prohibitions are many and they have to be avoided at all times, during the Ramadaan and in other than the Ramadaan. But when a person commits one of them while he is fasting, it indicates the corruption of his heart and weakness of his eemaan, because he could not abandon them even while he was fasting. Some of these prohibitions are as follows:

1-   Lying

Lying is to express something opposite to the actual reality, whether it is done deliberately or out of ignorance. However, it is not a sin if done in ignorance and forgetfulness, it only constitutes to a sin when it is done deliberately ([1]).

And the greatest and the most heinous of lies is to tell a lie on Allaah and His Messenger (), Allaah (the most High) said:

{وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنِ افْتَرَى عَلَى الله كَذِبًا أَوْ كَذَّبَ بِآيَاتِهِ إِنَّهُ لاَ يُفْلِحُ الظَّالِمُون}
{And who is more unjust than one who invents about Allah a lie or denies His verses? Indeed, the wrongdoers will not succeed} ([2])

And He (swt) said:

{وَلاَ تَقُولُواْ لِمَا تَصِفُ أَلْسِنَتُكُمُ الْكَذِبَ هَذَا حَلاَلٌ وَهَذَا حَرَامٌ لِّتَفْتَرُواْ عَلَى الله الْكَذِبَ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَفْتَرُونَ عَلَى الله الْكَذِبَ لاَ يُفْلِحُون}
{And do not say about what your tongues assert of untruth, "This is lawful and this is unlawful," to invent falsehood about Allaah. Indeed, those who invent falsehood about Allah will not succeed} ([3])

And He (ta’ala) said:

{قُلْ إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ رَبِّيَ الْفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ وَالإِثْمَ وَالْبَغْيَ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ وَأَن تُشْرِكُواْ بِالله مَا لَمْ يُنَزِّلْ بِهِ سُلْطَانًا وَأَن تَقُولُواْ عَلَى الله مَا لاَ تَعْلَمُون}
{Say, "My Lord has only forbidden immoralities - what is apparent of them and what is concealed - and sin, and oppression without right, and that you associate with Allah that for which He has not sent down authority, and that you say about Allah that which you do not know."} ([4])

And there are several other verses about the prohibition of lying upon Allaah and His Messenger ([5]).

As for the ahadeeth, there are a lot of them, we’ll suffice with the mention of just two of the ahadeeth here:

Al-Mugheerah bin Shu’bah (radiallah anhu) narrates: I heard the Messenger of Allaah () saying:

(( إن كذباً عليَّ ليس ككذب على أحدٍ، فمن كذب عليَّ متعمِّداً فليتبوَّأْ مقعدَه من النار ))
“Verily, lying upon me is not like lying upon anyone else, for whoever intentionally lies upon me, will surely take his abode in the Hell-Fire” ([6])

Imaam Muslim narrates from al-Mugheerah bin Shu’bah (radiallah anhu) that the Messenger of Allaah () said:

((من حدث عني بحديث يرى أنه كذب، فهو أحد الكاذبين))
“Whoever narrates a hadeeth from me while knowing it to be false, then he is one of the two liars (i.e. the one who invents a lie or the one who repeats it).” ([7])

Lying upon Allaah and His Messenger () is a great abomination, a major sin, and a great destruction ([8]).

As for lying in general upon others besides Allaah and His Messenger, there are a number of texts from the Qur’an and the Sunnah mentioning its prohibition and it is one of the abominable sins. There is a unanimous consensus (Ijmaa) of the Muslim nation upon its prohibition based on the apparent textual evidence ([9]). It is enough for its prohibition that the Prophet () said:

((آية المنافق ثلاث: إذا حدَّث كذب، وإذا وعد أخلف، وإذا ائْتُمِنَ خان))
“The signs of a hypocrite are three: when he speaks, he tells lies; when he makes a promise, he breaks it; and when he is entrusted, he betrays his trust” ([10])

And Allaah (ta’ala) said:
{ثُمَّ نَبْتَهِلْ فَنَجْعَل لَّعْنَةَ الله عَلَى الْكَاذِبِين}
{then (let us) pray and invoke the curse of Allaah upon the liars} ([11])

Abdullah bin Mas’ood (radiallah anhu) narrates from the Prophet () that he said:

((عليكم بالصدق؛ فإن الصدق يهدي إلى البر وإن البر يهدي إلى الجنة، وما يزال الرجل يصدق ويتحرَّى الصدق حتى يُكتب عند الله صدِّيقاً، وإياكم والكذب؛ فإن الكذب يهدي إلى الفجور، وإن الفجور يهدي إلى النار، وما يزال الرجل يكذب ويتحرَّى الكذب حتى يكتب عند الله كذَّاباً))
((Adhere (you people) to truth, for truth leads to good deeds and good deeds lead to Paradise, and if a man continues to speak the truth and makes truth his object he will be recorded as truthful before Allaah. Avoid (you people) falsehood, for falsehood leads to wickedness and wickedness leads to Hell, and if a man continues to speak falsehood and makes falsehood his object he will be recorded as a liar before Allah.)) ([12])

Lying is not permissible except in three situations:

Situation # 1: In the state of war
Due to the hadeeth:

((الحرب خُدْعة))
((War is deception)) ([13])

Situation # 2: Reconciling between disputing parties
Due to the saying of the Prophet ():

((ليس الكذَّاب الذي يصلح بين الناس فَيَنْمِي خيراً أو يقول خيراً))
((He is not a liar who brings about reconciliation among people, conveys good words and says good things)) ([14])

Situation # 3: When a man speaks to his wife, or a wife to her husband, concerning matters that will increase the love between them.

All of these three characteristics are indicated in the hadeeth mentioned previously.
Moreover, Abu Dawood narrates that Umm Kalthoom (radiallah anha) said:

((ما سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يرخص في شيء من الكذب إلا في ثلاث، كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول: " لا أعده كاذبا، الرجل يصلح بين الناس، يقول: القول ولا يريد به إلا الإصلاح، والرجل يقول: في الحرب، والرجل يحدث امرأته، والمرأة تحدث زوجها))
((I did not hear the Messenger of Allaah () making a concession for anything people say falsely except in three matters. The Messenger of Allaah () would say: I do not count as a liar a man who puts things right between people, saying a word by which he intends only putting things right, and a man who says something in war, and a man who says something to his wife, or a wife who says something to her husband.)) ([15])

2-   Word of Falsehood and False Testimony (قول الزور وشهادة الزور)

Zaur (False) is a general word that includes: lying, absurdity, accusation, and false testimony. The basic meaning of az-Zaur is to beautify, rectify, adjust, or correct something (whether good or evil). It is to utter something after having rectified or beautified it, and to describe something opposite to its actual description.

Imaam Tabari rahimahullah said:

(( ... فإن كان ذلك كذلك فأولى الأقوال بالصواب ... أن يقال: إن الزور كل باطل سواء كان ذلك: شركاً، أو غناءً، أو كذباً، أو غيره، وكل ما لزمه: الزور؛ لأن الله عمَّ في وصفه عباد الرحمن أنهم لايشهدون الزور، فلا ينبغي أن يخصّ من ذلك شيئاً إلا بحجة))
((The most correct of statements is to say that al-Zaur refers to all that is wrong whether it is shirk (associating partners with Allaah), music, lie, or anything else that necessitates Zaur. That is because Allaah has generalized in his description of the worshippers of Ar-Rahmaan saying that they do not witness falsehood (az-Zaur), therefore, it is not befitting to specify any one thing from it, except with evidence.)) ([16])

Allaah ta’ala said while describing the worshippers of ar-Rahmaan:

{وَالَّذِينَ لاَ يَشْهَدُونَ الزُّورَ وَإِذَا مَرُّوا بِاللَّغْوِ مَرُّوا كِرَامًا}
{and those who do not witness falsehood } ([17])

And He the most High said:

{فَاجْتَنِبُوا الرِّجْسَ مِنَ الأَوْثَانِ وَاجْتَنِبُوا قَوْلَ الزُّور}
{So refrain from the filth of the idols and refrain from a word of falsehood} ([18])

Therefore, it is obligatory upon a fasting person to refrain from word of falsehood, false witness, ignorance, and acting in accordance to it. Abu Hurayrah (radiallah anhu) narrates: The Messenger of Allaah () said:

((من لم يدع قول الزور والعمل به والجهل فليس لله حاجةٌ [في] أن يدع طعامه وشرابه))
((One who does not give up word of falsehood, acting in accordance with it, and ignorance (foolishness), then Allaah is not in need of his leaving his food and drink)) ([19])

3-   Backbiting (الغيبة)

Gheebah or backbiting means speaking about a Muslim in his absence and saying things that he would not like to have spread around or mentioned.

Imaam Nawawi rahimahullah said:

((الغيبة: ذكر المرء بما يكرهه، سواء كان ذلك في: بدن الشخص، أو دينه، أو دنياه، أو نفسه، أو خَلْقِه، أو خُلُقِه، أو ماله، أو ولده، أو زوجه، أو خادمه، أو ثوبه، أو حركته، أو طلاقته، أو عبوسته أو غير ذلك، مما يتعلق به، سواء ذكرته باللفظ أو بالإشارة والرمز، ومن ذلك قول كثير من الفقهاء في التصانيف: قال بعض من يدَّعي العلم أو بعض من ينسب إلى الصلاح ... ممن يفهم السامع المراد منه ... ومنه قولهم عند ذكره: الله يعافينا، الله يتوب علينا، نسأل الله السلامة، فكل ذلك من الغيبة))
((Backbiting is to mention about someone that he dislikes being mentioned whether it is about his body, his religious affairs, his worldly affairs, his inner self, his physical characteristics, his ethics, his wealth, his children, his spouse, his servant, his clothing, his activity, his speech, his silence, or anything else that relates to him, whether you mentioned it with words or an indication and a symbol. Included in this is the saying of many of the Fuqaha in their books: ‘Some of those who claim to have knowledge said’, or ‘someone who is attributed towards righteousness said’ – such that the listener can decipher and understand who he is referring to – and included in this is their saying when someone is mentioned: ‘may Allaah grant us well-being’, ‘we repent to Allaah’, ‘we ask Allaah to keep us safe’ (such that the one listening knows that it is intended to degrade the person being mentioned) – all of this comes under backbiting)) ([20])

And gheebah is haram by the consensus of Muslims. And there are several clear evidences on its prohibition from the Qur’an, the Sunnah, and Ijmaa of Ummah ([21]) over a fasting person and others.

Allaah the most High said:

{وَلاَ يَغْتَب بَّعْضُكُم بَعْضًا أَيُحِبُّ أَحَدُكُمْ أَن يَأْكُلَ لَحْمَ أَخِيهِ مَيْتًا فَكَرِهْتُمُوهُ وَاتَّقُوا الله إِنَّ الله تَوَّابٌ رَّحِيم}
{and do not backbite one another. Does one of you like that he eats the flesh of his dead brother? You would abhor it. And fear Allah. Surely Allah is Most-Relenting, Very-Merciful.} ([22])

And Abu Hurayrah (radiallah anhu) narrates that the Messenger of Allaah () said:

((أتدرون ما الغيبة؟)) قالوا: الله ورسوله أعلم، قال: ((ذكرك أخاك بما يكره)) قيل: أفرأيت إن كان في أخي ما أقول؟ قال: ((إن كان فيه ما تقول فقد اغتبته، وإن لم يكن فيه ما تقول فقد بهته))
((Do you know what is gheebah?)) The people said: “Allaah and His Messenger know better” He said: ((It is to talk about your (Muslim) brother in a manner which he dislikes)) It was said: “What do you think if what I said about my (Muslim) brother is true?” He replied: ((If what you said is found in him, then that is backbiting, and if what you said is not found in him, then that is slandering)) ([23])

There are several other verses and narrations prohibiting and discouraging gheebah ([24]), therefore, it is obligatory upon a fasting person to distance himself from backbiting and other calamities of the tongue, for indeed the Prophet () said:

((أكثر خطايا ابن آدم في لسانه))
((Most of the mistakes of the son of Adam is due to his tongue)) ([25])

Gheebah is permissible for a legitimate goal in six categories:

1.    Oppression: It is permissible for the one who is oppressed to complain about his situation to the ruler or the judge or anyone else who holds authority or has the ability to grant him justice against his oppressor. He should say: “Such and such person wronged me” and “he did such thing to me”, and “he coerced me in this manner” and so on.

2.    Seeking assistance in changing an evil and returning a sinner back to what is correct – One should say to the individual whom he expects has the ability to put an end to the evil: “Such and such person did this, so prevent him” or something to that effect.

3.    Seeking a fatwa (religious ruling) – One should do this by saying to the muftee (scholar capable of issuing a fatwa): “My father” or “my brother” or “such and such person wronged me in this way.” “Does he have the right to do so?” “How shall I go about putting an end to it and obtain my right while repelling oppression from myself?” and so on. This is permissible due to the necessity for it, however, to be more cautious, it is better for one to say: “What do you say about a man who has done such and such thing?” or “concerning a husband” or “concerning a wife who did such and such” (without saying “my”), etc.

4.    Warning and Advising the Muslims against Evil – There are several perspectives to this, of which one is: Declaring someone unreliable in the field of narrating hadeeth and giving testimony. Another case is when an individual desires to enter into a relationship with another person either through marriage, business, the consignment of property, the consigning of something to him or any other of the daily affairs. It is obligatory on you to mention to that individual what you know about the person he wants to get involved with, with the intention of advising him. Another case is to warn someone from the people of innovation. One last case is when a person has some leadership role, which he does not fulfill properly either because he is not fit for it or because he is a sinner or neglectful, etc. So in this case, one must mention this to those who have general leadership over this person, so that he can be removed and someone fit can be put in charge.

5.    When one openly exposes his acts of evil or his innovation – An example of this is when someone has openly exposed his consumption of alcohol, or his illegal confiscation of people’s money and raising of their taxes unjustly and his usurping command wrongfully. It is thus permissible for one to talk about what that individual has made public. But it is forbidden to mention any of his other defects, unless they fall under one of the categories in which we have mentioned that backbiting is permissible.

6.    Defining someone – If someone is known to the people by his nickname, such as “the bleary eyed one”, “the one who limps”, “the deaf guy”, “the blind guy”, “cross-eyed”, “flat-nosed”, and other than that, then it is permissible to particularize him as such, with the aim of identifying him. However, it is forbidden to apply that to him, when one’s intention is to degrade him. If he can be identified with another (more appropriate) type of name, then that is more preferable. ([26])

Some people have compiled these six categories into an easy to remember poetry:

القدح ليس بغيبة في ستةٍ ... متظلِّمٍ، ومعرِّفٍ، ومُحذِّرِ
ومجاهر فسقاً ومستفتٍ ... ومن طلب الإعانة في إزالة منكر

4-   Gossip (النميمة)

Al-Nameemah refers to the act of conveying the information of a conversation with one person to another with the intent that mischief (hatred, and enmity) is caused between the two ([27]).

This is one of the major sins and prohibitions according to the consensus of Muslims. There are several clear evidences on its prohibition from the Qur’an, the Sunnah and the Ijmaa’ ([28]).

Malicious gossiping is something that causes corruption between a man and his wife, and between a man and his brother; and the damage that it can cause is even more than the damage caused by magic. 
Imaam Abu Nu’aym narrates from Imaam Yahya bin Abi Katheer (rahimahullah) that he said:

((يفسد النمام في ساعة ما لا يفسد الساحر في سنة))
((The damage that a gossip-monger causes in an hour, is not caused by a magician in a year)) ([29])

From this, we can say that it is one of the forms of magic, because of it resemblance to magic in its ability to cause separation between people, alteration of the hearts of lovers, and proliferation of evil. And that is why Allaah warned us from it and said:

{وَلاَ تُطِعْ كُلَّ حَلاَّفٍ مَّهِين* هَمَّازٍ مَّشَّاء بِنَمِيم * مَنَّاعٍ لِّلْخَيْرِ مُعْتَدٍ أَثِيم}
{And do not obey every worthless habitual swearer * [And] slanderer, going about with malicious gossip * one who prevents good, (and who is) transgressor, sinful} ([30])

And the Prophet () warned us from it when he said:

((لا يدخل الجنة نمّام))
((A (mischievous) gossip-monger shall not enter Paradise))

And in another wording:

((لا يدخل الجنة قتات))
((A qattaat (gossip-monger) shall not enter Paradise)) ([31])

There are several other ahadeeth narrated from the Prophet () on the prohibition of Nameemah ([32]).

There are six things a person should do when someone tells him a gossip:

1.    Do not believe the Nammaam (tale-teller) for he is an evil person and his testimony is rejected.

2.    Stop the nammaam, advise him, and rebuke his action.

3.    Detest him for the sake of Allaah.

4.    Do not think ill of your absent brother.

5.    Do not be pushed by what has been said to go and check on others and spy.

6.    Do not accept for yourself what you have forbidden the Nammaam from doing. Do not spread his Nameemah, for doing so will make you a nammaam as well ([33]).

5-   Cheating (الغش)

One must avoid cheating others in all affairs whether it is selling, renting, manufacturing, and pledging. In all acts and in all sayings; and in all consultations and advices; for verily cheating is a major sin, and the Prophet () has disowned anyone who does it. He said:

((من حمل علينا السلاح فليس منا، ومن غشنا فليس منا))
((He who takes up arms against us is not of us; and he who cheats us is not of us.)) ([34])

And in another wording:

((من غش فليس مني))
((He who cheats is not of me)) ([35])

Al-Ghash is deceit, cheating, betrayal of trust, and lack of reliability among people. Anything that is earned through ghash is a cursed earning, and it will only increase its earner in drifting away from Allaah Ta’ala ([36]).

6-   Vain talk, Singing, & Musical instruments

Al-Ma’azif refers to all the instruments of lahw (distraction & diversion from Allaah) in all its forms such as: lute, rebec, movies, and licentious images etc. Allaah (the most High) said:

{وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَشْتَرِي لَهْوَ الْحَدِيثِ لِيُضِلَّ عَن سَبِيلِ الله بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ وَيَتَّخِذَهَا هُزُوًا أُولَئِكَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ مُّهِين}
{And of the people is he who buys discourses of distracting amusements, so that he may mislead (people) from the Way of Allah, and make a mockery of it. For such people there is a disgraceful punishment} ([37])

And it is authentically narrated from Ibn Abbaas (radiallah anhu) that he was asked about this ayah, and he said:

((الغناء وأشباهه))
((This refers to music and its likes)) ([38])

And this is also authentically narrated from Ibn Umar, Jaabir, Ikrimah, Sa’eed bin Jubayr, & Mujaahid (radiallah anhum). Moreover, Imaam Al-Hasan al-Basri said:

((نزلت هذه الآية في الغناء والمزامير))
((This ayah was revealed regarding music and singing)) ([39])

And the Prophet () also warned us from al-Ma’aazif and he compared it with Zinaa (illegal sexual intercourse). He () said:

((ليكونَنَّ من أمتي أقوامٌ يستحلِّون الِحرَ، والحرير، والخمر، والمعازف ... ))
((Among my ummah there will certainly be people who permit zinaa, silk, alcohol and musical instruments…)) ([40])

The meaning of permit is that they will do these things freely and without any care. This is something we experience in this age of ours, there are people who use and listen to these ma’azif as if it’s Halaal. So beware O slave of Allaah from the invalidators (Nawaaqid) & shortcomings (Nawaaqis) of fasting ([41]).

7-   All other things prohibited by Allaah in all conditions

A fasting person must avoid all of the things Allaah has prohibited in all conditions. Hence, one cannot achieve nearness to Allaah (Ta’ala) by avoiding the permissible (halaal) desires such as Food, Drink and all of the things that are permissible in the state of non-fasting, except after he has achieved nearness to Him by avoiding all of what He (swt) has prohibited (haraam) in all conditions including: Lying, Oppression, Enmity of people in their blood & wealth, Avoiding vain & obscene activity, and every useless talk.

This is why it is narrated in the hadeeth from Abu Hurayrah (radiallah anhu) that the Messenger of Allaah () said:

((ليس الصيام من الأكل والشرب إنما الصيام من اللغوِ والرَّفث، فإن سابَّك أحدٌ أو جهل عليك، فلتقل: إني صائم، إني صائم))
((Fasting is not (just) to avoid eating and drinking, but fasting is to avoid vain and obscene talk. Thus, if someone curses you or displays ignorance on you, then say: ‘Indeed I am fasting’, ‘Verily I am fasting’)) ([42])

And Abu Hurayrah (radiallah anhu) narrates that the Messenger of Allaah () said:

((رُبَّ صائمٍ حظّه من صيامه الجوع والعطش، ورُبَّ قائمٍ حظّه من قيامه السهر))
((It may be that a fasting person’s portion from his fast is (just) hunger and thirst, and it may be that the portion of a person standing in qiyaam from his qiyaam is (just) sleeplessness))

This was the wording of Ibn Khuzaymah. And the wording of Imaam Ahmad is:

((كم من صائمٍ ليس له من صيامه إلا الجوع، وكم قائمٍ ليس له من قيامه إلا السهر))
((How many are those who fast and get nothing from their fast except hunger, and how many are those who pray and get nothing from their prayer except a sleepless night)) ([43])

And in another hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah (radiallah anhu), he narrates from the Prophet () that:

(( ... وإذا كان يوم صوم أحدكم فلا يرفث، ولا يصخب؛ فإن سابَّه أحد أو قاتله فليقل: إني امرُؤٌ صائم ... ))
((…When any one of you is fasting on a day, he should neither indulge in obscene language, nor raise the voice; and if anyone reviles him or tries to quarrel with him he should say: I am a person fasting…)) ([44])

Some of the Salaf used to say:

((أهون الصيام: ترك الطعام، والشراب))
((The easiest form of fasting is to avoid food and drink)) ([45])

And Jaabir bin Abdullah (radiallah anhu) said:

((إذا صمت فليصم سمعك، وبصرك، ولسانك، عن الكذب، والمحارم، ودع أذى الجار، وليكن عليك وقار وسكينة يوم صومك، ولا تجعل يوم صومك ويوم فطرك سواء)
((When you fast, then let your hearing and your vision and your tongue fast from lying and the forbidden things, and leave off harming your neighbor, so that there may be dignity & sakeenah (peace, tranquility) upon you on the day that you fast. And do not make your day of fasting and your day of not fasting the same)) ([46])

Ibn Rajab rahimahullah said:
((وسرّ هذا أنَ التقرّب إلى الله تعالى بترك المباحات لا يكمل إلّا بعد التقرّب إليه بترك المحرّمات ، فمن ارتكب المحرّمات ثم تقرّب بترك المباحات كان بمثابة من يترك الفرائض ويتقرّب بالنوافل ، وإن كان صومه مجزئا عند الجمهور بحيث لا يؤمر بإعادته ؛ لأنّ العمل إنّما يبطل بارتكاب ما نُهي عنه فيه لخصوصه ، دون ارتكاب ما نُهي عنه لغير معنى يختصّ به . هذا هو أصل جمهور العلماء))
((And the underlying meaning of this is that seeking nearness to Allah the Exalted by leaving off the permissible things is not complete until after seeking nearness to Him by leaving off the forbidden things. So whoever commits forbidden acts and then seeks nearness (to Allah) by abandoning the permissible things is like the one who leaves off the obligatory acts and seeks nearness through the optional acts. This is the case, even though his fast is acceptable according to the majority of scholars – meaning that he is not commanded to repeat it, because an action is only invalidated by committing that which is specifically prohibited from it, as opposed to committing that which is not specifically prohibited from it. This is a principle of the majority of the scholars.)) ([47])

[1] - [Sharh an-Nawawi Ala Saheeh Muslim (1/69), al-Adhkaar by al-Nawawi (P. 326)]
[2] - [Al-An’aam (6:21)]
[3] - [An-Nahl (16:116)]
[4] - [Al-A’raaf (7:33)]
[5] - [See, Afaat al-Lisaan by al-Qahtaani (P. 63-72)]
[6] - [Agreed Upon – Al-Bukhaari (1219) & Muslim (4)]
[7] - [Saheeh Muslim – The Introduction (P. 8)]
[8] - [Sharh an-Nawawi Ala Muslm (1/69)]
[9] - [Al-Adhkaar of An-Nawawi (P. 232)]
[10] - [Agreed Upon: Al-Bukhaari (33) & Muslim (59) from Abu Hurayrah (radiallah anhu)]
[11] - [Aal-Imraan: 3/61]
[12] - [Agreed Upon – Al-Bukhaari (6094) & Muslim (2607)]
[13] - [Agreed Upon – Al-Bukhaari (3030) & Muslim (1741)]
[14] - [Agreed Upon – Al-Bukhaari (2546) & Muslim (2605)]
[15] - [Sunan Abu Dawood (4921) & Saheeh Muslim (2605)]
[16] - [Jaami’ ul-Bayaan by al-Tabari (19/314) paraphrased; and see: Al-Nihaayah fi Ghareeb il-Hadeeth wal-Athar by Ibn al-Atheer (2/318), & Fath ul-Baari (4/116-117)]
[17] - [Soorah Al-Furqaan: 25/72]
[18] - [Soorah al-Hajj: 22/30]
[19] - [Saheeh al-Bukhaari (1903, 6057)]
[20] - [Al-Adhkaar of an-Nawawi (P. 288-290) paraphrased; and see: Fath ul-Baari by Ibn Hajr (10/469)]
[21] - [Al-Adhkaar of an-Nawawi (P. 289), and see: Fath ul-Baari of Ibn Hajar (10/473)]
[22] - [Soorat al-Hujuraat (49:12)]
[23] - [Saheeh Muslim (2589)]
[24] - [Shaykh Sa’eed bin Wahf al-Qahtaani has mentioned over 20 ahadith and over 5 verses of the qur’aan concerning gheebah in his book “Afaat ul-Lisaan” (see: P. 13-49)]
[25] - [See: Saheeh al-Jaami’ of al-Albaani (1201)]
[26] - [See: Sharh an-Nawawi ‘Ala Saheeh Muslim (16/142) & Al-Adhkaar of an-Nawawi (P. 292) – this translation of the six categories is taken from]
[27] - [Sharh an-Nawawi ‘Ala Saheeh Muslim (2/112)]
[28] - [Al-Adhkaar of al-Nawawi (P. 289)]
[29] - [Hilyat al-Awliyaa (3/70)]
[30] - [Soorat al-Qalam (68:10-12)]
[31] - [Agreed Upon: Al-Bukhaari (6056) & Muslim (105)]
[32] - [See: Afaat ul-Lisaan by Shaykh al-Qahtaani (P. 52-60)]
[33] - [Sharh al-Nawawi ‘ala Saheeh Muslim (2/1113), Fath ul-Baari by Ibn Hajar (10/473), Al-Adhkaar of an-Nawawi (P. 299)]
[34] - [Saheeh Muslim (101) from Abu Hurayrah (radiallah anhu)]
[35] - [Saheeh Muslim (102)]
[36] - [Majaalis Shahr Ramadaan by Al-‘Uthaymeen (P. 117-118)]
[37] - [Soorat Luqmaan (31:6)]
[38] - [Tafseer al-Tabari (20/127-128)]
[39] - [See: Ighaathah al-Lahfaan by Ibn al-Qayyim (1/338-341)]
[40] - [Saheeh al-Bukhaari (5590) from Abu Maalik al-Ash’ari (radiallah anhu).]
[41] - [Majaalis Shahr Ramadaan by Ibn Uthaymeen (119)]
[42] - [Saheeh Ibn Khuzaymah (1996) & Al-Mustadrak al-Haakim (1/430). Al-Haakim authenticated it upon the condition of Muslim. And Shaykh al-Albaani said in his footnotes of Saheeh Ibn Khuzaymah (3/242): “Its chain is authentic”]
[43] - [Saheeh Ibn Khuzaymah (1997), Musnad Ahmad (2/441) & Sunan Ibn Maajah (1/431) – It is classed “Hasan” by al-Iraaqi in al-Ihyaa (5/199) and Al-Albaani said in his footnotes on Saheeh Ibn Khuzaymah (3/242): “Its chain is Saheeh”, and in Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah (2/71) he said: “Hasan Saheeh”. And it also has a shaahid from the hadeeth of Ibn Umar (radiallah anhu) in Al-Mu’jam al-Kabeer of Al-Tabaraani (12/383)].
[44] - [Agreed Upon: Al-Bukhaari (1894, 1904) & Muslim (1151)]
[45] - [Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah (2/272 # 8883), Lataa'if al-Ma'aarif fi ma li Mawaasim al-'Aam min al-Wazaa'if  by Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali (P. 155)]
[46] - [Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah (8880), Az-Zuhd wal-Raqaa’iq by Ibn al-Mubaarak (1308), Fazaa’il al-Awqaat by al-Bayhaqi (62), Shu’b al-Emaan by al-Bayhaqi (3374), and see: Lataa’if al-Ma’arif by Ibn Rajab (p. 155)]
[47] - [Lataa’if al-Ma’aarif by Ibn Rajab (p. 155-156) – translation by Tulayhah]