Wednesday, June 21, 2017

Fiqh of Ramadaan – 13/30 Conditions for the fast to be invalidated

Fiqh of Ramadaan – 13/30
Conditions for the fast to be invalidated

In order for the fast to be invalidated by one the invalidators of fast mentioned previously – with the exception of Menstruation and Nifaas – there are three conditions that must be met. If any of these conditions are not found, these invalidators will not invalidate the fast. ‘Allaamah Muhammad bin Muflih al-Maqdisi rahimahullah said after mentioning all of the things that invalidate the fast:

(( ... وإنما يفطر بجميع ما سبق إذا فَعَلَهُ عامداً، ذاكراً لصومه، مختاراً))
((And all of the things mentioned previously will only invalidate the fast if they are done deliberately, knowingly, and voluntarily)) ([1])

Brief explanation of these conditions are as follows:

First Condition: The Fasting person is aware of the ruling:

Al-Ilm (Knowledge) in the lughah is the opposite of Al-Jahl (ignorance); and it refers to having a complete and firm comprehension of a concept based on what it is. Imaam Shawkaani rahimahullah said: ((Ilm (knowledge) is an attribute by the means of which the desired concept is revealed completely and clearly)) ([2]).

Therefore, if a person is ignorant of the ruling, his fast will not be invalidated, due to the saying of Allaah:

{رَبَّنَا لاَ تُؤَاخِذْنَا إِن نَّسِينَا أَوْ أَخْطَأْنَا}
{Our Lord, do not hold us accountable if we forget or make a mistake}

Upon this, Allaah says:

((قد فعلت))
((I have done that)) ([3])

And Allaah (swt) says:

{وَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ فِيمَا أَخْطَأْتُم بِهِ وَلَكِن مَّا تَعَمَّدَتْ قُلُوبُكُمْ وَكَانَ الله غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا}
{And there is no blame upon you for that in which you have erred but [only for] what your hearts intended. And ever is Allah Forgiving and Merciful} ([4])

Second Condition: He remembers it while doing it

If the fasting person forgets and does something from the invalidators of the fast, then his fast is valid and he does not have to make it up. Due to the hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah (radiallah anhu) that the Messenger of Allaah () said:

((من نسي وهو صائم فأكل أو شرب فليتمَّ صومه فإنما أطعمه الله وسقاه))
((Whoever forgets that he is fasting, and eats or drinks, should complete his fast, as it was Allaah who fed him and gave him something to drink)) ([5])

Hence the command of the Prophet () for such a person to complete his fast is a proof that his fast is valid, and the attribution of the forgetful person eating and drinking to Allaah is a proof that he is not held accountable for it ([6]).

Imaam Bukhaari rahimahullah said:

((وقال عطاء: إن استنثر فدخل الماء في حلقه لا بأس به إن لم يملك، وقال الحسن: إن دخل حلقه الذباب فلا شيء عليه، وقال الحسن ومجاهد: إن جامع ناسياً فلا شيء عليه))
((Ataa (bin Abi Rabaah) said: “If a person sniffs water into his nose and the water enters his throat, there is nothing wrong with it if he is powerless”. And Al-Hasan (al-Basri) said: “If a fly enters his throat, there is no blame on him.” And al-Hasan & Mujaahid both said: “If he has intercourse forgetfully, there is no blame on him”)) ([7])

Shaykh Ibn Baaz rahimahullah said:

((لو نسي فجامع فلا شيء عليه على الصحيح))
((If one forgets and has intercourse, there is no blame on him, according to the correct opinion)) ([8])

However, as soon as he remembers it or someone reminds him, then it is obligatory on him to observe abstinence, and spit out whatever is in his mouth if anything, because of the elimination of the excuse at that moment.

And it is obligatory on the one who sees a fasting person eating or drinking to remind him ([9]), due to the saying of Allaah:

{وَتَعَاوَنُواْ عَلَى الْبرِّ وَالتَّقْوَى}
{And cooperate (with each other) in righteousness and piety} ([10])

Third Condition: He does it voluntarily

If a fasting person does any of the things that invalidate the fast involuntarily or forcefully without him willing to do it, then his fast is valid and he does not have to make it up either, and there is no expiation due on him. That is because Allaah (the Supreme the Most Merciful) has raised the blame even from a person who is forced to commit Kufr (disbelief) while his heart his satisfied with Eemaan (belief), hence He (swt) says:

{مَن كَفَرَ بِالله مِن بَعْدِ إيمَانِهِ إِلاَّ مَنْ أُكْرِهَ وَقَلْبُهُ مُطْمَئِنٌّ بِالإِيمَانِ وَلَكِن مَّن شَرَحَ بِالْكُفْرِ صَدْرًا فَعَلَيْهِمْ غَضَبٌ مِّنَ الله وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيم}
{Whoever disbelieves in Allah after his belief, except for one who is forced [to renounce his religion] while his heart is secure in faith. But those who [willingly] open their breasts to disbelief, upon them is wrath from Allah, and for them is a great punishment} ([11])

So when Allaah has elevated any blame from the one who is forced to commit kufr (which is the most serious crime possible), then anything else will come under it very easily. And also because of the saying of the Prophet ():

((إن الله تجاوز لي عن أمتي الخطأ والنسيان، وما استكرهوا عليه))
((Verily Allaah has pardoned for me my ummah: their mistakes, their forgetfulness, and that which they have been forced to do)) ([12])

So if a fasting person is forced to break his fast, or a person forces his wife to have intercourse with him while she is fasting and he threatens her to do it, then her fast is valid and she does not have to make it up or give any expiation.

Similarly, if dust or other particles enter one’s throat or stomach without any deliberate attempt, or he rinses his mouth or sniffs water into the nose and some of the water enters his stomach involuntarily, then his fast is valid and he does not have to make it up ([13]). Likewise, if a fasting person sees a wet dream during his sleep, his fast is also valid and he does not have to make it up or give expiation, because that happened involuntarily.

[1] - [Al-Furoo’ by Ibn Muflih (5/12), and see: Al-Mughni by Ibn Qudaamah (4/364) & Ash-Sharh al-Kabeer (7/423)]
[2] - [Irshaad ul-Fuhool (P. 21)]
[3] - [Saheeh Muslim (126) from Ibn Abbaas and in (125) from Abu Hurayrah]
[4] - [Al-Ahzaab (33:5)]
[5] - [Agreed Upon: Al-Bukhaari (1933), Muslim (1155)]
[6] - [Majaalis Shahr Ramadaan by Ibn Uthaymeen (P. 172)]
[7] - [Al-Bukhaari (before H. 1933)]
[8] - [As-Siyaam fil Islaam by al-Qahtaani (P. 205)]
[9] - [Majaalis Shahr Ramadaan by Ibn Uthaymeen (P. 172)]
[10] - [Al-Maa’idah (5:2)]
[11] - [An-Nahl (16:106)]
[12] - [Ibn Maajah (2043), Classed Saheeh by al-Albaani]
[13] - [Majaalis Shahr Ramadaan by Ibn Uthaymeen (P. 172-173)]

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