Saturday, May 27, 2017

Fiqh of Ramadaan – 7/30 Types of Fasting

Fasting is of four types, which are as follows:
Type 1: Fasting obligated by Sharee’ah
That is the fasting of Ramadaan: both observing it and making it up. Due to the saying of Allaah:
((يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُون * أَيَّامًا مَّعْدُودَاتٍ فَمَن كَانَ مِنكُم مَّرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ))
{O you who have believed, decreed upon you is fasting as it was decreed upon those before you that you may become righteous - [Fasting for] a limited number of days. So whoever among you is ill or on a journey [during them] - then an equal number of days [are to be made up].} ([1])
And also due to the various ahadeeth narrated in this regard, and the Consensus of the Ummah. The details of making up the fasting of Ramadaan will follow later on, in-sha-Allaah.

Type 2: Fasting obligated as expiation
And this is of various types:
1-   Expiation of shaving the head before the sacrificial animal has reached its place of slaughter for the Muhrim (one in the state of Ihraam during Hajj). This is three days of fasting for the one who chooses it over the other two options of charity or sacrifice of an animal ([2]).
2-   One who does not find a sacrificial animal or cannot afford it expiates by fasting three days during the Hajj and seven days when he returns back to his home, making a total of ten fasts ([3]).
3-   Expiation for killing by mistake for the one who does not find a believing slave to set free, so he fasts for two consecutive months ([4]).
4-   Expiation for breaking an oath is fasting for three days for the one who cannot find or afford the feeding of ten needy people or the freeing of a slave ([5]).
5-   Fasting as an expiation for intentionally killing game in the state of Ihraam for the one who cannot find or afford to give an equivalent of that from sacrificial animal or food ([6]).
6-   Expiation for Zihaar for the one who cannot find or afford a believing slave to set free, is to fast for two consecutive months ([7]).
7-   Expiation for having sexual intercourse during the day of Ramadaan for the one who cannot find or afford to set a believing slave free ([8]).

Type 3: Fast obligated by Nazr [Vow] ([9])
Due to the hadeeth of Aa’ishah (radiallah anha) that the Prophet () said:
((من نذر أن يطيع الله فليطعه، ومن نذر أن يعصي الله فلا يعصه))
((He who vows to obey Allah, should obey Him. But he who vows to disobey Allah, should not disobey Him)) ([10])

And Ibn Abbaas (radiallah anhu) narrates that a man came to the Prophet () and said: “O Messenger of Allaah, my mother died and she had vowed to fast for a month, should I fast on her behalf?” He () said:
((نعم، فدين الله أحق أن يقضى)) وفي لفظ: جاءت امرأة فقالت: يا رسول الله لِلَّهِ إن أمي ماتت وعليها صوم نذر أفأ صوم عنها؟ قال: ((أرأيت لو كان على أمكِ دين فقضيتيه أكان يؤدِّي ذلك عنها؟))، قالت: نعم، قال: ((فصومي عن أمك))
((Yes, for Allaah's debts have more right to be paid.)) In another wording: “A woman came and said: O Messenger of Allaah () my mother died and she had vowed to fast, should I fast for her?” He said: ((Don’t you think if your mother had died while owing debts, would it not have been paid on her behalf?)) She said: “Yes”. The Prophet () said: ((Then observe fast on behalf of your mother)) ([11])
And there are several other ahadeeth on the obligation of vowed fasting and having it observed on behalf of the deceased ([12]).

Type 4: Voluntary Fasting
This will be discussed in detail in part 23.

[1] - [Al-Baqarah (2:183-184)]
[2] - [Al-Baqarah (2:196)]
[3] - [Al-Baqarah (2:196)]
[4] - [An-Nisaa (4:92)]
[5] - [Al-Maa’idah (5:89)]
[6] - [Al-Maa’idah (5:95)]
[7] - [Al-Mujaadilah (58:3-4)]
[8] - [The hadeeth regarding that will be mentioned later inshallah]
[9] - [Nazr linguistically means to make a vow. It is said: “Nazartu Kaza (I vowed for this)”: meaning, He made it obligatory upon himself. The Shar’ee meaning of Nazr is to obligate upon oneself to do a particular act of obedience to Allaah.]
[10] - [Al-Bukhaari (6696, 6700), Maalik (8), Abu Dawood (3285), Tirmidhi (1525, 1526), Ibn Maajah (2126), Nasaa’ee (3806, 3807, 3808)]
[11] - [Agreed Upon: Al-Bukhaari (1953), Muslim (1148)]
[12] - [See, Kitaab al-Janaa’iz by al-Qahtaani (P. 349), Al-Fiqh ul-Muyassar (P. 150), Fiqh us-Sunnah by Sayyid Saabiq (1/422), & Mawsoo’ah al-Fiqhiyyah al-Kuwaytiyyah (9/28) etc]

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